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INDIAN MUSIC

Music of IndiaMusic of India
The music of India is one of the oldest unbroken musical traditions in the world. It is said that the origins of this system go back to the Vedas (ancient scripts of the Hindus). Many different legends have grown up concerning the origins and development of Indian classical music.
Indian music has developed within a very complex interaction between different peoples of different races and cultures. It appears that the ethnic diversity of present day India has been there from the earliest of times.
The basis for Indian music is "sangeet". Sangeet is a combination of three artforms: vocal music, instrumental music and dance. Although these three artforms were originally derived from the single field of stagecraft, today these three forms have differentiated into complex and highly refined individual artforms.
The present system of Indian music is based upon two important pillars: rag and tal. Rag is the melodic form while tal is the rhythmic.
Rag may be roughly equated with the Western term mode or scale. There is a system of seven notes which are arranged in a means not unlike Western scales.
The tal (rhythmic forms) are very complex. Many common rhythmic patterns exist. They revolve around repeating patterns of beats.
The interpretation of the rag and the tal is not the same all over India. Today there are two major traditions of classical music. There is the north Indian and the south Indian tradition. The North Indian tradition is known as Hindustani sangeet and the south Indian is called Carnatic sangeet. Both systems are fundamentally similar but differ in nomenclature and performance practice. All of this makes up the complex and exciting field of Indian classical music.

Indian musical instrumentsIndian musical instruments are very diverse in nature and are peculiar to India. The most famous are the sitar and tabla. However there are many more that the average person may not be familiar with. Most of the Indian musical instruments have evolved over centuries. Each instrument has its own history behind its evolution. Like any other culture's evolution. In a culture's early stages, artifacts, musical Instruments, and lifestyles are simple and basic in nature. Example: all tribal instruments are basic rhythm instruments and never complex instruments having a capacity to produce a range of octaves. As a society progresses, the demands made on musical instruments rise. Thus, most Indian instruments - although having started in simple forms because of a long period of evolution - have now become exquisite instruments capable of producing a varied pitch and range of octaves. Example: Tabla must have started just as a plain drum.
 

Traditional Classical Music of India
The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, it remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects, having very distinct cultural traditions. The two main traditions of classical music have been Carnatic music, found predominantly in the peninsular regions and Hindustani music, found in the northern and central parts. While both traditions claim Vedic origin, history indicates that the two traditions diverged from a common musical root since c. 13th century.
Hindustani Music
Hindustani MusicHindustani music is an Indian classical music tradition that goes back to Vedic times, and further developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD from existing religious, folk, and theatrical performance practices. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times where the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, was sung as Samagana and not chanted. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals.
Carnatic Music
Carnatic Music
The present form of Carnatic music is based on historical developments that can be traced to the 15th - 16th centuries AD and thereafter. From the ancient Sanskrit works available, and the several epigraphical inscriptional evidences, the history of classical musical traditions can be traced back to about 2500 years. Purandaradasa is credited with having founded today's Karnataka Music. He systematized the teaching method by framing a series of graded lessons such as swaravalis, janta swaras, alankaras, lakshana geetas, prabandhas, ugabhogas, thattu varase, geetha, sooladis and kritis. He introduced the Mayamalavagaula as the basic scale for music instruction. These are followed by teachers and students of Carnatic music even today. Another of his important contributions was the fusion of bhava, raga and laya in his compositions.
Carnatic music is completely melodic, with improvised variations. The main emphasis is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Like Hindustani music, Carnatic music rests on two main elements: rāga, the modes or melodic formulæ, and tāba, the rhythmic cycles.

Folk MusicFolk Music
India has a very rich tradition of folk music. The extreme cultural diversity creates endless varieties of folk styles. Each region has its own particular style. There is a tendency to lump folk music along with tribal music. There is actually a difference. Where folk music is a mere rustic reflection of the larger Indian society, tribal music often represents cultures that are very different. Some of these tribal cultures are throwbacks to cultural conditions as they were thousands of years ago. Music in the villages is learned almost by osmosis. From childhood the music is heard and imbibed along with ones mother's milk. There are numerous public activities that allow the villagers to sing Bhavageet (literally 'devotional song') which is a form of expressionist poetry and light music from times of yore.

Rajasthani MusicRajasthani Music
Rajasthani has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes, including Langas, Sapera, Bhopa, Jogi and Manganiyar. Rajasthan Diary quotes it as a soulful, full-throated music with Harmonious diversity. The haunting melody of Rajasthan evokes from a variety of delightfully primitive looking instruments. The stringed variety include the Sarangi, Rawanhattha, Kamayacha, Morsing and Ektara.Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the huge Nagaras and Dhols to the tiny Damrus. The Daf and Chang are a big favourite of the Holi (the festival of colours) revellers. Flutes and bagpipers come in local flavours such as Shehnai, Poongi, Algoza, Tarpi, Been and Bankia.
The essence of Rajasthani Music is derived from the creative symphony of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by melodious renditions of folk singers. It enjoys a respectable presence in bollywood(Indian Film Fratenity) Music as well.

Bhangra MusicBhangra Music
Bhangra is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region. As many Bhangra lyrics reflect the long and often tumultuous history of the Punjab, knowledge of Punjabi history offers important insights into the meaning of the music. While Bhangra began as a part of harvest festival celebrations, it eventually became a part of such diverse occasions as weddings and New Year celebrations. Moreover, during the last thirty years, Bhangra has enjoyed a surge in popularity worldwide, both in traditional form and as a fusion with genres such as hip-hop, house, and reggae. This folk music has become a pop sensation in the United Kingdom and North America. As Bhangra continues to move into mainstream culture, an understanding of its history and tradition helps to appreciate it.

Lavani MusicLavani Music
Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means beauty. This is one of the most popular forms of dance and music that is practiced all over Maharashtra. It has in fact become a necessary part of the Maharashtrian folk dance performances. Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artistes, but male artistes may occasionally sing Lavanis. The dance format associated with Lavani is known as Tamasha. Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particulary performed to the enchanting beats of 'Dholak', an drum like instrument. Dance performed by attractive women wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a quick tempo. The verve, the enthusiasm, the rhythm and above all the very beat of India finds an expressive declaration amidst the folk music of India, which has somewhat, redefined the term "bliss". Lavani is indeed one of the most important folk dance forms of India. Originated in the arid region of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, Lavani enlaced with its color, dream and effervescence is somewhat like an escape to the land of beauty and love.

Dandiya MusicDandiya Music
Dandiya is a form of dance-oriented folk music that has also been adapted for pop music worldwide. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance of Dandiya called by the same name, dandiya. (Dandiya means small sticks and are used in place of swords to train and practice martial art in form of dance by tribal in interior Gujarat in India. it is believed to be in practice since the days when Lord Krishna migrated from Mathura to Dwaraka.) dandiya is a popular folk dance

QawwaliQawwali
Qawwali is a form of Sufi devotional music popular on the Indian subcontinent. It's a vibrant musical tradition that stretches back more than 700 years. Originally performed mainly at Sunni Sufi shrines throughout the subcontinent, it has also gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali is the traditional form of Islamic song found in India and Pakistan. The word qawwali is derived from the Arabic word Qaol which means “axiom” or “dictum”. The qawwali is closely linked to the spiritual and artistic life of northern India and Pakistan. There is a very specific psychological process which a qawwali follows. One starts with the singing of the song. In this psychological state the song is received in a manner that is not unlike standard forms of musical expression. The words are sung, quite tepeatedly with variations intended to bring out deeper means of the lyrics. After awhile there is a repetition to the extent that the words cease to have a meaning; it is the ideal situation the participant is moved to a state of spiritual enlightenment (fana).

Movie music studioFilmi Music
India is the largest film producing country in the world. It produces around 1,000 films in 27 official languages. Every film must contain five to six songs which are based either on classical Indian music or light music. It also contains devotional songs. The Indian audience loves music from films. There are number of music recording studios based in different film cities of India in Bangaluru, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Noida Film City. Though popular film music is not entirely synonymous with Hindi film music, Hindi films are usually seen as adequately constituting the "essence' of commercial Indian cinema. Since the early 1930s, there have been few Hindi films without songs. A number of characteristics of Hindi film music and song compel attention. First, Hindi film music has borrowed unabashedly from all known styles and genres of music, and much like Indian culture as a whole, refuses to acknowledge the bankrupt concept of "copyright". Everything is, to put it colloquially, fair game: thus the borrowings are not only from Indian classical, folk, and devotional music, but also from Western music. Hindi film music is often set to large, Western-style orchestras but songs are sung by what are termed playback singers. Among the most well-known male playback singers have been K. L. Saigal, Kishore Kumar, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh, and Manna Dey; among the women, the two dominant voices have been of Lata Mangeshkar and her sister Asha Bhosle.